Up to date the population of Kyrgyzstan is about 6,000,000. The city dwellers amount to 34.1% of the country’s population, the majority of them lives in Bishkek, the rest part of the population are rural community and breeders-nomads. Such distribution is historically determined by the fact that the Kirgiz were indigenously vagrant tribes, migrating from one territory to another. They were engaged in agriculture and a cattle breeding, that is why Kirgizia is rather a large agrarian country than an industrial one with predomination of rural areas and mountains.
The indigenous population of Kyrgyzstan is the Kirgiz (72%) at the same time the country is populated with the representatives of 80 different nations. The largest Diaspora is a Russian one, which is considered in terms of number to be one of the largest outside Russia. This is due to the fact that beginning from the XIX century the Russians played an important role in all spheres of life of that region. During the colonization of Central Asia thousands of Russian peasants were moved to the territory of Kyrgyzstan. The majority of them settled in the northern part of the country. A considerable part of the Russian lives in the province of Chuy and in the region of Issyk-Kul.
The second largest nation in modern Kyrgyzstan is the Uzbeks. They amount to 14.3% of the whole population of Kyrgyzstan (about 768,000). The Uzbeks live in the southern part of the country in the region of the Fergana Channel.
The Uzbeks in the South of Kyrgyzstan belong to autochthonous peoples and live densely there mainly near to the Kirgiz-Uzbek border. Their population is especially considerable in ancient cities of Osh (49%) and Uzgen (90%). In spite of the identity of their religious conviction and resembling culture, the collisions between the Kirgiz and Uzbeks on the interethnic basis took place twice (in 1990 and 2010). Today, however, different measures are being taken to settle the situation in the region.
With proclamation of independence in Kyrgyzstan a number of actions are being held to establish good and friendly relations among all nations living in the region. Due to the “Kyrgyzstan is Our Common Home” program implemented by the Kirgiz government, today Kyrgyzstan is becoming the country where the peace and quietness as well as international consent dominate.